2020欧洲杯苹果下载

Word of the Day

Word of the day

Friday, May 01, 2020

inflorescence

[ in-flaw-res-uhns, -floh-, -fluh- ]

noun

a flowering or blossoming.

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What is the origin of inflorescence?

Inflorescence, “the arrangement of flowers on the axis, a flower cluster; a flowering or blossoming,” is a term used mostly in botany. Inflorescence comes straight from New Latin inflōrēscentia, a noun coined by the great Swedish botanist and zoologist Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), who formalized the system of binomial nomenclature used in the biological sciences. Inflōrēscentia is a derivative of the Late Latin verb inflōrēscere “to put forth flowers, bloom.” Inflōrēscere is a compound verb formed with the preposition and prefix in, in– “in, into,” but also, as here, used as in intensive prefix, and the verb flōrēscere “to begin flowering, increase in vigor.” Flōrēscere in turn is a compound of flōrēre “to be in bloom, be covered with flowers,” a derivative of the noun flōs (inflectional stem flōr-) “flower, blossom,” and the verb suffix –escere, which in Latin often has an inchoative sense, that is, it indicates the beginning of an action, as in rubescere “to become or turn red.” Inflorescence entered English in the 18th century.

how is inflorescence used?

To the amateur this opens a field of very interesting amusement: … watching every moment of the plant till it develops its beauties of inflorescence, which, if it prove of new character, is an ample compensation for the time spent upon the process.

Robert Buist, The Rose Manual, 1844

During fall and winter starch-grains … form the basis for that lavish expenditure of plant-force by which our orchards and woods are made glorious in the sudden inflorescence of spring.

T. H. McBride, "Plant Cells and Their Contents," Popular Science Monthly, July 1882

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Word of the day

Thursday, April 30, 2020

saponaceous

[ sap-uh-ney-shuhs ]

adjective 2020欧洲杯苹果下载

resembling soap; soapy.

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What is the origin of saponaceous?

Saponaceous, “soapy,” comes straight from the New Latin adjective sāpōnāceus. (New Latin, also called Modern Latin, is Latin that developed after, say, 1500; it is used especially and typically in the physical sciences, such as zoology, botany, and anatomy.) Sāpōnāceus is formed from the Latin sāpō noun (inflective stem sāpōn-) and the adjectival suffix –āceus, meaning “made of, resembling.” Sāpō means “a preparation for drying or coloring one’s hair,” and it is one of the relatively few words in Latin borrowed from Germanic (as compared to the many, many words in Germanic borrowed from Latin). Saponaceous also has the uncommon sense “slippery, unctuous,” which appeared in the 19th century: “This… judgment was… so oily, so saponaceous, that no one could grasp it.” Saponaceous entered English in the early 18th century.

how is saponaceous used?

The fruit of this plant is about the size of a large gooseberry, the outer covering or shell of which contains a saponaceous principle in sufficient abundance to produce a lather with water and is used as a substitute for soap.

"Report of the Chief of the Division of Gardens and Grounds," Report of the Secretary of Agriculture, 1890

The yolk contains natural food for the hair, iron and sulphur; while the white, being a mild alkali, finds its congenial mate in the oil from the sebaceous glands, and they mingle in a saponaceous lather.

Ella Adelia Fletcher, The Woman Beautiful, 1899

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Word of the day

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

ylem

[ ahy-luhm ]

noun

the hypothetical initial substance of the universe from which all matter is derived.

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Why we chose ylem

2020欧洲杯苹果下载Today's word was submitted by one of our readers as part of our Word of the Day Giveaway Sweepstakes! The winner, Matthew Winter, told us: "It makes me think about how everything is connected. All living and inanimate things originate from the same source; we are all ylem." Congrats, Matthew!

What is the origin of ylem?

The modern definition of ylem is “the hypothetical initial substance of the universe from which all matter is derived, originally conceived as composed of neutrons at high temperature and density.” The spelling of ylem comes from John Gower’s 33,000-line poem Confessio Amantis (A Lover’s Confession) finished in 1390: “That matere universall / Which hight Ylem in speciall” (“That universal matter which is called Ylem in particular”). Gower’s ylem is one of several Middle English spellings (also ile, ilem, ylem) from Medieval Latin hȳlēm or ȳlēm, the accusative singular of hȳlē or ȳlē, from Greek hȳ́lē “forest, woodland, wood, firewood”; Aristotle uses the phrase prṓtē hȳ́lē “primary stuff, matter, material.” In 1948 Robert Herman and Ralph Asher Alpher, associates of Russia-born U.S. nuclear physicist George Gamow, adopted the medieval word because, as Alpher said,” it seems highly desirable that a word of so appropriate a meaning be resurrected.”

how is ylem used?

One can call the mixture of particles ylem ( pronounced eelem ) -the name that Aristotle gave to primordial matter.

George Gamow, "Modern Cosmology," Scientific American, 1954

The Ylem2020欧洲杯苹果下载 is the primordial—the Ur-stuff—out of which everything else is made.

Jeremy Bernstein, "Out of My Mind: The Birth of Modern Cosmology," American Scholar, Vol. 55 No. 1, 1986

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Word of the day

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

iwis

[ ih-wis ]

adverb

Obsolete.

certainly.

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What is the origin of iwis?

Iwis is an obsolete, archaic adverb meaning “certainly, surely.” The very many Middle English spellings of the adverb include wisse, iwise, jwis(se), gwisse, ewis, awis, iwesse…, all of which come from the Old English adverb gewis “certainly, indeed, truly.” Old English gewis shows its close kinship with German gewiß (also spelled gewiss) “certainly, surely” (as in Ja, gewiß! “Yes, certainly!” in lesson 3 of German 101). During the 14th century the spellings i-wis, i-wisse (with other variants) began appearing in manuscripts, and in the second half of the 15th century, I wise appears as well, which shows that the writers or scribes no longer knew exactly what iwis meant, but thought it was a subject pronoun followed by the  (nonexistent) verb wis “know”; thus I wis was misinterpreted to mean “I know.” Iwis2020欧洲杯苹果下载 entered English before 900.

how is iwis used?

There be fools alive, iwis, / Silver’d o’er; and so was this.

William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice, 1600

For there by magic skill, iwis2020欧洲杯苹果下载, / Form of each thing that living is / Was limned in proper dye.

Sir Walter Scott, The Bridal of Triermain, 1813

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Word of the day

Monday, April 27, 2020

soi-disant

[ swa-dee-zahn ]

adjective 2020欧洲杯苹果下载

French.

calling oneself thus; self-styled.

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What is the origin of soi-disant?

The adjective soi-disant “calling oneself, self-styled, would-be” usually has a whiff of pretense or deception. The phrase is French, pure and simple, formed from the third person reflexive pronoun soi “oneself, him-, her-, itself,” and disant “saying,” the present participle of the verb dire “to say.” The pronoun soi comes from Latin , the accusative of the third person singular and plural reflexive pronoun; dire comes from Latin dīcere “to say.” Soi-disant2020欧洲杯苹果下载 entered English in the mid-18th century.

how is soi-disant used?

Franzen is railing against is not mere tech obsession but, rather, the intellectual and spiritual poverty, the weakness and the obedience, of soi-disant2020欧洲杯苹果下载 “creatives” who buy what they’re told rather than rage against the machine, who are too infatuated with their wonderful little toys even to look up from them while the world burns.

Maria Bustillos, "Jonathan Franzen, Come Join Us!" The New Yorker, September 18, 2013

I know of plenty of soi disant progressives who don’t really think we have a serious problem here, or else who think it’s a problem that can and should be solved almost entirely through the levers of education policy.

Matthew Yglesias, "Liberaltarianism?" The Atlantic, December 5, 2006

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Word of the day

Sunday, April 26, 2020

precipitate

[ pri-sip-i-teyt ]

verb (used with object)

to hasten the occurrence of; bring about prematurely, hastily, or suddenly: to precipitate an international crisis.

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What is the origin of precipitate?

All the noun, verb, and adjective senses of precipitate developed together in a 25-year period in the middle of the 17th century. Precipitate comes from Latin praecipitātus, the past participle of the verb praecipitāre “to cast down headlong, throw overboard,” a derivative of the adjective praeceps (inflectional stem praecipit-) “plunging headfirst, falling headlong; (of terrain) steep, falling steeply, sheer; (of human age) advanced in years, declining.” Praeceps is a compound of the preposition, adverb, and prefix prae, prae– (the prefix is also spelled prē-) “before, in front or advance of” and the combining form –ceps, –cipit-, a reduced form of caput (inflectional stem capit-) “head.” Praeceps (and praecipitāre) can also convey a notion of abruptness, rashness, or sudden disaster. In the 19th century precipitous in the sense “steep” gave rise to the curious phrase precipitous rise (as in prices or blood pressure), that is, sharply rising prices or blood pressure, not suddenly falling prices or blood pressure.

how is precipitate used?

We face a new reality, precipitated by the pandemic.

Jim Bankoff, quoted in "SB Nation faces murky future after Vox Media furloughs national writers for three months," Washington Post, April 17, 2020

He and others also hope this experience may help precipitate a sea change in disaster policy by encouraging the integration of once disparate fields such as emergency management, public health, and economics and steadier funding in those areas.

Andrea Thompson, "What Happens When Other Disasters Hit during a Pandemic? Scientific American, April 16, 2020

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Saturday, April 25, 2020

succedaneum

[ suhk-si-dey-nee-uhm ]

noun

a substitute.

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What is the origin of succedaneum?


The noun succedaneum comes straight from New Latin succēdāneum, a noun use of the neuter singular adjective of Latin succēdāneus “following after, substituted, additional.” Succēdāneus is formed from the Latin verb succēdere “to move into a position below, move on upward, advance” (a compound of suc-, a form of sub– “under, below,” and the simple verb cēdere “to come, come up, proceed”) and the adjectival suffix –āneus, source of English –aneous. Succedaneum2020欧洲杯苹果下载 entered English in the 17th century.

how is succedaneum used?

What succedaneum2020欧洲杯苹果下载 of mutton chop or broiled ham she had for the roast duck and green peas which were to have been provided for the family dinner we will not particularly inquire. We may, however, imagine that she did not devote herself to her evening repast with any peculiar energy or appetite.

Anthony Trollope, The Small House at Allington, 1864

A painter, as I have said on another occasion, if possible, should paint all his studies, and consider drawing only as a succedaneum when colours are not at hand. 

Joshua Reynolds, "'Note XI. Verse 106' on 'The Art of Painting,'" The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Vol. 2, 1797

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